Disperse dye is a type of textile dye that is sold in powder form and is a non-ionic dye. This type of dye has low water solubility and also have good resistance to light, washing, abrasion and sublimation.
The most chemical type of this dye are anthraquinone, azo and nitro and a limited number of disperse dye contain amino groups. But the disperse color does not contain soluble groups such as sulfonic acid and is used in aqueous environments with dispersing materials. The molecular weight of disperse dyes is approximately 300 to 800, the melting and sublimation point of disperse dyes is above 150 degrees. The particle size of disperse dyes is usually 0.5 to 2 microns. Factories that make disperse dyes use dispersants and other ingredients to make powders. Although these dyes have an aliphatic group such as OH-NH2, they do not have negative So3 and dissolve less than 0.1 mg per liter under the conditions of dyeing to use disperse dyes.
Disperse dye is used for dying polyester fibers and cellulose acetate. This type of paint is used in paper, leather and textile industries.
Disperse dying methods:
- Currier method
- dying method at high temperature
disperse dyes are divided into 4 classes in terms of temperature resistance and energy level, according to the type of final application, the desired dye class must be selected and by choosing the type of dye, one can choose the dyeing method and the type of machinery used.
Class A dye: this type of dye is low energy Micromolecules, which is used for polyester fabrics by the curry method Also its main use is related to diacetate dyeing at a temperature of 85 °C.
Class B dye: this type of dye is in the category of medium energy dyes, the dying operation takes place under the boiling temperature of 98-105°C and is known as carrier dyeing.
Class C dye: the dyeing operation is performed by this group of dyes at a temperature of 130 °C, which is called high temperature dyeing.
Class D dye: the fourth class of disperse dye has a very high sublimation, which is used for dyeing at temperature of 220 °C.
These types of dyes, which can be used in printing, are used in Termosol machines for dyeing operations.
According to the type of final application, it is better to use the same colorant class for different colors and shades; for example, for exhaustion, class C dye is recommended, and if the intention is to combine, it is preferable to use a combination of class C and D or B and C dyes, which have very close sublimation to each other.